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Is a Linux system configuration file read by the mount command to determine the file system organization.


  • One line of config comprise of
    • Source
    • Destination
    • System
    • Options
    • Dumping ≈ outdated method of backup for cases when the system went down. You should leave this as “0”.
    • Passing = 1 to do fsck on mount, 0 otherwise


  • auto / noauto
    • Specify whether the partition should be automatically mounted on boot.  You can block specific partitions from mounting at boot-up by using “noauto”.
  • exec / noexec
    • Specifies whether the partition can execute binaries.  If you have a scratch partition that you compile on, then this would be useful, or maybe if you have /home on a separate file system.  If you’re concerned about security, change this to “noexec”.
  • ro / rw
    • “ro” is read-only, and “rw” is read-write.  If you want to be able to write to a file-system as the user and not as root, you’ll need to have “rw” specified.
  • sync / async
    • This one is interesting.  “sync” forces writing to occur immediately on execution of the command
  • nouser / user
    • This allows the user to have mounting and unmounting privileges.  An important note is that “user” automatically implies “noexec”
  • atime / noatime / relatime / strictatime
    • Update access time: atime (update on access), noatime (do not update), relatime (update atime if older than mtime, default)
  • defaults
    • Use default settings

Specific to NFS - soft / hard - When the mount option ‘hard’ is set, if the NFS server crashes or becomes unresponsive, the NFS requests will be retried indefinitely. You can set the mount option ‘intr’, so that the process can be interrupted. When the NFS server comes back online, the process can be continued from where it was while the server became unresponsive. - When the option ‘soft’ is set, the process will be reported an error when the NFS server is unresponsive after waiting for a period of time (defined by the ‘timeo’ option). In certain cases ‘soft’ option can cause data corruption and loss of data. So, it is recommended to use hard and intr options. - _netdev - Force systemd to consider ressource as network mount


USB Disks

  1. Several options to see devices
    • sudo blkid to locate block devices
    • sudo lsblk to list mounted block devices
    • ls /dev to check where the USB stick is mounted
  2. sudo fdisk /dev/sdXX
    1. p to list existing partition
    2. g to create a new GPT partition table or o for a DOS partition table
    3. n to create a new partition
    4. w write to disk and exit
  3. sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdXX00 to create an ext4 partition
  4. sudo mkdir /media/usbdrive to create a directory that will host the partition
    • Choose /mnt for temporary mounts
    • Choose /media for automatics mounts
  5. sudo mount /dev/sdXX00 /media/usbdrive -o umask=000 to mount the USB key with all user access
  6. sudo umount /dev/sdXX00 to unmount
  7. If you want to make it permanent
    • Edit sudo nano /etc/fstab
    • Add a line /dev/sdXX00 /media/usbdrive ext4 defaults 0 0


  • In the command line: sudo mount -t nfs /nfs/
    • Add -o ro for read only
    • Need to install nfs-common before
  • In the fstab:
SERVER_IP:/mnt/tank/data/nfs /nfs   nfs  rw,async,noatime,hard,x-systemd.automount   0    0


  • Mount: sudo mount -o loop archive.tcz ./test ​
    • test directory must exist beforehand
  • Unmount: sudo umount ./test ​